Klin Onkol 2013; 26(Suppl): 38-43. DOI: 10.14735/amko2013S38.
The most common premalignant lesions of colorectal carcinoma include sporadic adenomas. Tubular and tubulovillous adenomas with mild dysplasia are considered benign lesions, while villous adenomas represent tumors with uncertain biological behavior. In recent years, demonstrable growth of flat lesions in the proximal intestine has been seen. Precision and yield of colonoscopy depends to some extent on good preparation, careful screening of intestine and use of new instruments of better quality. As an indicator of screening colonoscopy quality, the so-called adenoma detection rate is used. The text briefly describes options of endoscopic and surgical resolving of premalignancies. In the Czech Republic, attendance in the screening program is low, which could be changed by prepared addressed invitations of clients. The population with a genetic or familiar risk is examined according to recommended procedures intended for increased-risk persons.