Background: The oncoprotein p53 protein induces cell growth arrest (apoptosis) in response to endo‑ or exogenous stimuli. Mutation of TP53 (gene encoding the p53 protein) is common in human malignancies and alters the conformation of p53. The result is a more stable protein which accumulates in nuclei of tumor cells with loss of function. Mutant p53 is stabilized, and it is possible to detect this form very clearly by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Expression of the MDM2 protein is used as a potential marker of p53 function. P53 levels in normal cells are highly determined by the MDM2 protein (murine double minute‑ 2) – mediated degradation of p53. MDM2 overexpression represents at least one mechanism by which p53 function can be abrogated during tumorigenesis. Material and Methods: Lung carcinoma samples were obtained from patients, who underwent radical resection (lobectomy or pulmonectomy and lymphadectomy). Pathological diagnosis was based on the WHO criteria. In our study, we investigated the expression of p53 and MDM2 protein that might improve IHC as a marker for p53 status. Proteins were IHC detected in 136 samples of primary lung carcinoma. Immunostaining results of p53 positive samples were compared to IHC expression of MDM2 positive and MDM2 negative samples. Results: Strong brown nuclear staining was visible in p53 and MDM2 positive cells. The most p53 positive cases were samples of squamocellular carcinoma (55%), then samples of large cell carcinoma (53%) and 26% adenocarcinoma samples showed the p53 immunoreactivity. No one sample of different types was p53 positive. When we compared the p53 expression and grade of tumor, we found that the p53 expression increased with the grade of tumor. For statistical evaluation, the chi‑ square test was used. The relationship between p53 expression and type of tumor, also the p53 expression and grade of tumor was statistically significant (p = 0.000425; p = 0.00157). Regarding p53 and MDM2 expression, only nine samples (7%) were simultaneously p53 and MDM2 positive. In 46 (34%) cases, elevation of p53 was combined with MDM2 negative expression. Other tumor samples were either negative for both proteins (71/ 52%), or p53 negative and MDM2 positive in 10 (7%) tumor samples. Conclusion: Absence of p53 staining in most studies indicates absence of p53 mutation, and on the contrary, positive expression of p53 is a sign of p53 mutations with loss of function. In our study, 34% of cases with extensively high level of p53 without increased level of MDM2 were identified. We suppose that these are tumors with inactivating mutations that stabilize p53. On the other hand, tumors with high level of stabilized wild‑type p53 protein and simultaneously with increased MDM2 staining (9 samples/7%) represent group with functional p53. In this group of patients, we could expect better prognosis with regard to function of p53 protein.