International data document that the Czech Republic ranks among the countries with the highest cancer burden in Europe and worldwide. Preventable cancer diseases, i.e. colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer, are among the most frequent types. These international studies also bring some positive information, e.g., stabilised or slightly decreasing mortality, better treatment outcomes and patient survival rates. However, it should be noted that, with regard to the high population burden, these results are achieved at the very high price of costly modern cancer treatment.