Czech Society for Oncology has developed an information system which combines the population-based Czech National Cancer Registry with clinical databases in order to cover the main areas of health care assessment – monitoring of the population burden, prediction of the number of cancer patients, diagnostic and treatment results. The presented data demonstrate a high cancer burden within the Czech population – each year there are approximately 8,000 new cases of colorectal cancer, 6,500 new cases of breast cancer, and 1,000 new cases of cervical cancer. And each year, about 4,000 people die from colorectal cancer, around 2,000 women die from breast cancer, and approximately 400 women die from cervical cancer in the Czech Republic. Population-based screening programmes focus on all of the above-mentioned groups of malignant tumours; therefore, it is essential to monitor epidemiological trends in order to assess the screening impact. Despite the high incidence rates of all three cancer types, the trend in mortality rates has been stable or has even decreased in the long term, which has inevitably led to a significant increase in the total prevalence of cancer patients. In 2011, the prevalence of colorectal cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer amounted to 51,064 people, 67,261 women and 17,398 women, respectively. When compared with the year 2001, there was a 59%, 69% and 25% increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer, respectively. Undoubtedly, taking care of high numbers of cancer patients will continue to require significant financial resources in the near future. As the epidemiological burden is still on the increase, preventive programmes need to be further promoted, including secondary prevention, which is provided through organised screening programmes. Although effective methods exist for timely diagnosis of all three of the above-mentioned cancer types, the epidemiological situation in the Czech Republic is being steadily worsened by a relatively high proportion of primary cancers being diagnosed too late. Each year, more than 50% of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed in clinical stage III or higher; in cervical cancer, this proportion is nearly 35%. By contrast, the well-promoted breast cancer screening programme has led to more than 75% of new cases of breast cancer being diagnosed in stages I or II, when the chance of successful treatment is significantly higher.