Summary Bladder cancer has high prevalence in men and women. Bladder cancer usually originates from urothelium. More than 75% of cases are classified as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Urothelial bladder carcinoma is usually managed by transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Role of transurethral resection of the bladder tumor is also essential in bladder cancer staging. Local prophylaxis is used in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer to reduce risk of recurrence. While local chemoprophylaxis is sufficient in low and middle risk patients, intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is preferred in high risk bladder cancer. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with locoregional treatment is used in advanced bladder cancer. New immunotherapy modalities have proven their efficacy in several clinical studies in advanced bladder cancer.