Background: The treatment of early or locally advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on surgical resection or radiotherapy. Metastatic disease is always incurable, treatment is palliative, systemic based on chemotherapy or target therapy. NSCLC is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Based on the emerging data on the role of immune system in shaping of tumor outbreak and outcome, immunotherapy is currently in the center of interest of cancer research and therapy of solid cancers including NSCLC. Various anti-cancer vaccination approaches and antigen-independent immunomodulatory drugs are being developed and trialed. The most advanced in terms of approaching clinical practice are the so-called checkpoint inhibitors blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or programmed cell death of the protein and its ligand (PD-1, PD-L1). Beside innovative drug development, the field of cancer immunotherapy focuses on the identification and clinical application of effective biomarkers of clinical efficacy and on the evaluation of combinations of immunotherapeutic drugs or with classical anti-cancer approaches, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy or with targeted therapy. Aim: In this review, we summarize basic principles of immnobiology of NSCLC in the context of innovative immunotherapeutics, strategy and phase III results of anti-cancer vaccines in NSCLC, results of NSCLC treatment with checkpoint inhibitors, and current challenges in immunotherapy of lung cancers.