Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men. Chemotherapy has an important role in the management of prostate cancer, especially for the treatment of castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). According to recently published studies, chemotherapy can also be used to treat advanced hormone sensitive disease. Aim: The aim of this report is to review the currently available options for chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Results: Docetaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent used for standard treatment of mCRPC as 1st line therapy. In TAX 327 and SWOG 9916 studies reported in 2004, docetaxel, the first cytostatic agent indicated for this disease, prolonged overall survival. As a 2nd line mCRPC treatment, kabazitaxel resulted in longer overall survival than mitoxantrone, according to the results of the TROPIC study. Targeted hormone treatment, radium-223 irradiation, and immunotherapy are other treatment options for patients with mCRPC. Currently, the main focus is to develop an optimal sequence of treatments. Standard androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard option for patients with advanced hormone sensitive prostate cancer. According to recently published studies (CHAARTED, STAMPEDE), docetaxel with ADT increases overall survival in this group of patients. In the Czech Republic, this option is still off-label. Chemotherapy is not indicated in patients with early prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.