Background: The costs of oncology treatments are increasing, due to the rising prevalence of malignant diseases and the introduction of expensive novel anti-cancer agents. The new European Society for Clinical Oncology (ESMO) has recently developed a new parametric system to evaluate the clinical benefit of drugs. The Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) compares the contribution of a novel drug based on overall and progression-free survival and quality of life with those of current treatment options. Material and Methods: An expert group of the Czech Oncological Society conducted an assessment based on published data and an ESMO-MCBS methodology for antineoplastic agents used for the treatment of solid tumors with limited reimbursement to Comprehensive Cancer Centers. We evaluated drugs categorized as “S” that were eligible for public health insurance as of January 1, 2017. Results and Conclusion: The ESMO-MCBS score is a promising new parameter for the evaluation of new anticancer drugs. The ESMO-MCBS method for assessing the clinical benefit of drugs is simple, robust, and reproducible. The advantage of the assessment is that it is not based on a single index but rather combines several dimensions of drug performance. This parameter will be gradually added to Czech cancer guidelines. Scores obtained in the majority of cases correspond to the observed benefit of a drug in routine clinical practice.