Cancer Treatment-induced Changes in Renal Function in Patients with Tumors – Update on Current Knowledge


Klin Onkol 2018; 31(1): 28-34. DOI: 10.14735/amko201828.

Background: Renal abnormalities associated with malignancy are common with renal impairment occurring in about 60% of patients with tumors. Kidney disease may occur as a result of direct or indirect effects of tumors on kidneys and the urinary tract. Systematic oncology treatment can affect renal function in two ways, via direct toxic effects on kidney structure and indirectly via dehydration or tumor lysis syndrome. Since 2004, the Food and Drug Administration has approved a number of potentially nephrotoxic chemotherapeutics, targeted drugs, and immunotherapeutics for the treatment of solid tumors. Aim: This article provides an overview of the latest information on the nephrotoxicity associated with the use of new drugs. Conclusion: Despite the development of new drug treatments, including targeted therapy and immunotherapy, the risk of kidney involvement persists. The mechanisms of action of these new drugs are different from those of classical chemotherapy, and their use is usually associated with only mild to moderate side effects. In clinical trials, patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency are not present in most cases. Deterioration of renal function may significantly affect the treatment strategy and therefore careful renal function monitoring should be an integral part of each clinical trial.

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