Background: Adenocarcinomas of ampulla of the Vater are relatively uncommon tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In premalignant lesions endoscopic treatment predominate. According to some authors even early adenocarcinomas (limited to mucosa) can be solved endoscopically. In malignant lesions affecting deeper layers (including submucosa) surgical therapy is the most important. The article summarises the current view for a surgical treatment of ampullary adenocarcinomas and presents results concerning our group of patients. Materials and Methods: In 2012–2016 a total number of 17 patients underwent resection for a tumor of ampulla of the Vater. Patients underwent standard staging, were presented before a multidisciplinary committee and referred to a surgical treatment. The main measured parameters were the type of surgical procedure, 30-day morbidity and mortality, histopathologic result and subsequent oncologic treatment. The Leeds Pathology Protocol was used to evaluate the specimens after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Results: PD (n = 9) was a more often performed procedure than the transduodenal surgical ampullectomy (TSA) (n = 8). TSA predominated in polymorbid patients. Histological results (n = 17) established adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in 4 patients, the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was set in 13 patients. Eight patients underwent adjuvant oncologic therapy (2 had adjuvant chemotherapy, 6 had combination of chemoradiotherapy). Conclusion: Premalignant neoplasias of ampulla of the Vater can be mostly solved by endoscopy. If endoscopic resection is not possible surgical therapy is indicated. PD is preferred procedure in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. In high-risk and polymorbid patients, with no suspicion for a metastatic lymph nodes, TSA can be considered. Endoscopic ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice for local staging of ampulla of the Vater and has important role in deciding between endoscopic, local surgical excision (TSA) or radical resection (PD). Our results confirmed rightfulness to perform TSA especially in elderly or polymorbid patients, where in histopathologic specimens evaluation in TSA procedures early T stage and more favorable grading predominated.