Klin Onkol 2019; 32(Suppl 2): 118-122. DOI: 10.14735/amko2019S118.

Background: BAP1 syndrome is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome associated with increased risk of malignant mesothelioma; uveal and cutaneous melanoma; kidney cancer; lung adenocarcinoma; meningioma; basaliomas; and breast, ovarian, and prostate tumors. The BAP1 gene (BRCA1-associated protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in DNA repair via homologous recombination. BAP1 regulates the cell cycle, differentiation, DNA damage responses, and cell proliferation through deubiquitination. Somatic mutations in the BAP1 gene are common in many types of tumors. Observation: Two families harboring a germline mutation in the BAP1 gene were diagnosed at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (MMCI). A 27-year-old index female from one family was followed-up for multiple nevi. Her mother and uncle had malignant mesothelioma, and her maternal grandmother had uveal melanoma. The index case tested positive for a BAP1 (NM_004656.2): c.217delG/p.Asp73Metfs*5 frame-shift mutation. The melanoma was removed at the age of 28 and 31. In the second family, an 11-year-old index female had two nevi removed from her head, and a spitzoid-type skin lesion was diagnosed at the age of 11. Her 34-year-old mother had multiple nevi, and a skin lesion of spitzoid-type was removed from the abdomen. Both patients harbored a BAP1 (NM_004656.2): c.123-1G>T acceptor splice site mutation (IARC [International Agency for Research on Cancer] class 4 [probably pathogenic]). Preventive measures for BAP1 syndrome should include known risks for cancer. Tumors occur early and repeatedly. At the MMCI, we recommend physical examination by an oncologist, eyes and skin examination, every 6 months; whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, including the central nervous system, every year (or low-dose computed tomography/chest and abdomen magnetic resonance imaging); annual abdominal ultrasound, breast ultrasound, or mammography; a gynecological ultrasound examination every 6 months; colonoscopy starting at the age of 45; and other suitable surveillances based on family history. Conclusion: BAP1 syndrome is a complex cancer syndrome with a high risk of rare malignant mesothelioma, malignant skin and uveal melanoma, spitzoid-type skin lesions, and other tumors. Detection of this syndrome is essential for the survival of high-risk individuals.


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