Klin Onkol 2020; 33(5): 340-349. DOI: 10.14735/amko2020340.

Background: To provide an overview of the importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma and their utility as bio­markers for dia­gnosis, prognosis and prediction of treatment response. Materials and methods: A literature search in the Pubmed and Web of Science databases using the keywords variations of “long non-coding RNA” (“lncRNA”, “long noncoding RNA”, “long non-coding RNA”) and “renal cell carcinoma” (“renal cancer”, “renal cell carcinoma”, “kidney cancer”) was performed. The results related to the pathogenesis, dia­gnosis, prognosis and use as therapeutic targets were separated. Results: Long non-coding RNAs regulate gene expression at different levels. They act both as oncogenes and tumor suppressors. The mechanism of their action has not been fully elucidated, but they are actively involved in the regulation of hypoxia inducible factors pathway, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, local invasion and development of metastases. Aberrant expression in tumor tissue compared to healthy parenchyma and the correlation of expression levels with clinical-pathological features allow the potential use of many lncRNAs as bio­markers for early detection and prognosis of the disease, including the response to targeted therapy. In vitro assays indicate the potential use of lncRNAs as therapeutic targets. Conclusion: Our knowledge of long non-coding RNAs in relation to renal cell carcinoma is increasing rapidly. At present, some of them can be considered as promising bio­markers. Further research is needed before they can be introduced into routine clinical practice.

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