Klin Onkol 2020; 33(5): 356-361. DOI: 10.14735/amko2020356.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of cancer with increasing incidence. It accounts for approximately 90% of primary liver cancers and it is a significant global health problem. Globally, it represents the 5th most common disease and it is considered to be the third most common cause of cancer related deaths. The occurrence of HCC is related to environmental factors, eating habits and lifestyle. It is more common in men than in women. The highest incidence of HCC is in Southeast Asia, China, West and Central Africa, and among immigrants from high-risk areas in the United States. In North America, Europe and Japan, hepatitis C virus infection is its major risk factor along with alcohol consumption. Modern therapeutic methods improved the results of the treatment in patients with HCC. In early stages of HCC, curative treatment, surgical resection, liver transplantation, and radiofrequency ablation are possible. In advanced disease, local chemotherapy and systemic targeted therapy have prolonged survival. Purpose: The aim of the article is to present the possibilities of systemic treatment of HCC in first and second lines of the treatment. Sorafenib was the first drug to be approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced HCC and is a standard first-line drug. The first choice in the second line treatment of patients with progressive disease (after the treatment with sorafenib) is regorafenib. Nowadays, immunotherapy is also an adequate treatment option. Cabozantinib and ramucirumab represent additional treatment.


Full text in PDF