Nuclear medicine is an important field of modern medicine, particularly thanks to its role in in vivo imaging of important processes in human organism. This is possible thanks to the use of radiopharmaceuticals, specific substances labeled by radioactive nuclide, its distribution in the body can be visualized by specialized scanners and, based on the knowledge of physiological patterns, diagnosis can be determined. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a modern and in many ways indispensable method of nuclear medicine. The spectrum of radiopharmaceuticals available in recent years is broadening thanks to a coordinated eff ort of manufacturers of synthesis equipment, chemists and potential users – physicians. This review focuses on the development in the PET radiopharmaceutical field in the last fi ve years, with an emphasis on oncological applications of PET.