Glycomics and glycoproteomics represent relatively new directions in detail analyses of complex biological media. These areas of increasing importance to cancer research complement the more established genomic profiling and proteomics. Glycoproteins are being increasingly recognized as important in cellular interactions and adhesion. Structural alterations of their glycan moieties seem to occur in diff erent cancer conditions. We review current directions in glycomic profiling and glycoproteomic investigations of biological fluids and tissues pertaining to cancer. The used methods rely on capillary separation techniques, mass spectrometry, and the glycan and lectin arrays. They all show considerable promise for new diagnostic and prognostic measurements.