Background: Currently, most children with cancer can be cured with standard therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy). The only limiting factor is its severe acute toxicity and late adverse events. In pediatric oncology, immunotherapy has been delayed but the initial clinical trials of immunotherapy show a good tolerance and promising results, especially in the setting of refractory or recurrent high-risk tumors. In this article, we will discuss a current situation in pediatric oncology, what immunotherapies are being tested in the clinical practice, from monoclonal antibodies, check point inhibitors to tumor vaccines, T-lymphocytes with chimeric antigen receptors, cytokines and innate immunity.
Conclusion: Immunotherapy is a promising treatment modality for children and adolescents with recurrent high-risk cancer with potential to improve both survival and quality of life. The challenge of developing immunotherapies in pediatric oncology remains – age bar riers for using new drugs and a limited number of pediatric clinical studies.