Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of plasma cells with an incidence of 4.8 cases per 100,000 population in the Czech Republic in 2014; the burden of MM in the Czech Republic is moderate when compared to other European countries. This work brings the latest information on MM epidemiology in the Czech population. Material and Methods: The Czech National Cancer Registry is the basic source of data for the population-based evaluation of MM epidemiology. This database also makes it possible to assess patient survival and to predict probable short-term as well as long-term trends in the treatment burden of the entire population. Results: According to the latest Czech National Cancer Registry data, there were 504 new cases of MM and 376 deaths from MM in 2014. Since 2004, there has been a 26.9% increase in MM incidence and an 8.3% increase in MM mortality. In 2014, there were 1,982 persons living with MM or a history of MM, corresponding to a 74.4% increase when compared to MM prevalence in 2004. The 5-year survival of patients treated in the period 2010–2014 was nearly 40%. Conclusion: The available data make it possible to analyse long-term trends in MM epidemiology and to predict the future treatment burden as well as treatment results.