The Late Effects in Patients Treated with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation


Klin Onkol 2011; 24(6): 453-459. DOI: 10.14735/amko2011453.

Backgrounds: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become a curative treatment option for a variety of malignant and non-malignant hematological disorders. The number of long-term survivors after HSCT is continuously increasing and quality of their life represents a multidisciplinary concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the late effects in long-term allogeneic HSCT survivors. Patients and Methods: The study included 45 patients aged 12–63 years who survived at least two years after allogeneic HSCT for a hematological disorder. Twelve (26.7%) patients received an irradiation-based conditioning regimen. Median follow-up was 6 years (range 2–18 years). Results: Toxicity varied from subclinical to life-threatening. The prevalence of at least one late toxic effect was 88.9%. Endocrine and metabolic complications included thyroid abnormalities in 12 (26.7%) patients, bone and joints complications in 13 (28.8%) and metabolic syndrome in 13 (28.8%). Ocular complications were diagnosed in 20 (44.4%), cardiovascular abnormalities in 15 (33.3%), pulmonary dysfunction in 6 (13.3%) and secondary malignancies in 3 (6.67%) survivors. The number of complications per patient increased with time from HSCT. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was the most significant risk factor associated with ocular, pulmonary and osteoarticular complications. Conclusion: Late toxicity of allogeneic HSCT in patients surviving for more than 2 years after this procedure may facilitate conduct of longer follow-up studies and an implementation of interventions to prevent late effects among survivors of serious hematological diseases

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