Klin Onkol 2020; 33(5): 350-355. DOI: 10.14735/amko2020350.

Background: The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically improved the prognosis of many cancer patients. However, their increasing use has also revealed several unexpected side effects – including cardiovascular complications. Increased attention was paid to them in recent years only, especially due to their potentially fatal character. Checkpoint inhibitors cardiotoxicity includes myocarditis, rhythm disorders (atrioventricular blocks, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias), pericarditis, myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiogenic shock and sudden cardiac death. The risk of ICI-associated cardiotoxicity is increased in patients treated with dual immune therapy, in combination with other cardiotoxic drugs, with preexisting cardiac damage, diabetes mellitus, underlying autoimmune disease and some other factors. Currently, there are no guidelines for prediction and management of ICI-associated cardiotoxicity. Purpose: Herein, we briefly summarize the findings regarding checkpoint inhibitor-induced cardiotoxicity and provide a new definition of anti-tumor-induced myocarditis together with a suitable design for immune- induced myocarditis management prepared by experts from the field of cardiooncology.


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